Engineering Guide: Chemistry Resources
The principles of chemistry include topics such as chemical nomenclature, atomic structure, periodic table, chemical reactions, Stoichiometry, and acids and bases.
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
An atom is an extremely tiny particle of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions. A molecule is a definite and specific group of atoms that are chemically bonded together and connected by attractive forces. An ion is an electrically charged particle obtained from an atom or chemically bonded group of atoms by adding or removing electrons.
Structure of Atoms
The sub-atomic particles in the atom consist of the protons, neutrons, and electrons. The nucleus is located at the center of the atom and contains the protons and the neutrons. The electrons are found at considerable distances from the nucleus in a series of levels called energy levels.
Stoichiometry is the quantitative description of the proportions by moles of the substances in a chemical reaction.
The properties of gases include pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of substance. Experimental relationships or laws (such as Charles’ Law and Boyle’s Law) are used in order to connect the properties of gases.
The forces holding molecules together are generally called intermolecular forces. These forces play a particularly important role the ways in which molecules interact and form biological organisms and life.